Citation: Intel updates Atom processor roadmap (2011, May 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-05-intel-atom-processor-roadmap.html So, it can be no surprise that, rather than creating a line of processor specifically for smart phone and tablet PCs, the company has chosen to work with an existing line of processors. The Atom processor line, a well-established line of processors for laptops and desktops, is getting some new members to the family tree. The line of processors are expected to change and grow over the next three years. There will be three new chips in the Atom family, one in 2012, one in 2013 and one in 2014. The chips are also going to show some significant changes with each generation released. The current generation of Atom processors has a 45nm technology node. Next years processors will be 32nm node, which are correctly sized to fit into a mobile phone or a tablet PC easily. In the following years we will see these chip numbers decrease, the chip that are slated to come out in 2013 are expected to have a 22nm technology node. That chip will be named the ‘Silvermount’. It will reduce the power usage from the current 40W to just only the use of 15W. The ‘Airmont’, 14nm Atom processor, is expected to be rolled out in 2014.So, you may soon see the trademarked “Intel Inside” on your next cell phone. Intel Announces Intel Atom Brand for New Family of Low-Power Processors This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2010 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Intel is one the biggest names in PC processors, if not the single biggest, but as is the way with all markets as new things come in the landscape can change in the blink of an eye. When the hardware inside mobile devices started to become a serious chunk of the processor market, the ARM chips have became the big name in that area. Like any good company with a strong position in the market Intel is looking to keep their number one spot and move into the mobile market in a big way. Explore further
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — A new study by scientists in the US has solved the mystery of why predatory fish have a far greater digestive capacity than they actually need. The study suggests the reason is that the extra-large guts allow them to gorge on food when it is available so they can store the calories for use in the lean times. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Image: United States Department of Agriculture Explore further More information: Excess digestive capacity in predators reflects a life of feast and famine, Jonathan B. Armstrong & Daniel E. Schindler, Nature (2011) doi:10.1038/nature10240AbstractA central challenge for predators is achieving positive energy balance when prey are spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Ecological heterogeneity produces evolutionary trade-offs in the physiological design of predators; this is because the ability to capitalize on pulses of food abundance requires high capacity for food-processing, yet maintaining such capacity imposes energetic costs that are taxing during periods of food scarcity. Recent advances in physiology show that when variation in foraging opportunities is predictable, animals may adjust energetic trade-offs by rapidly modulating their digestive system to track variation in foraging opportunities. However, it is increasingly recognized that foraging opportunities for animals are unpredictable3, which should favour animals that maintain a capacity for food-processing that exceeds average levels of consumption (loads). Despite this basic principle of quantitative evolutionary design, estimates of digestive load:capacity ratios in wild animals are virtually non-existent. Here we provide an extensive assessment of load:capacity ratios for the digestive systems of predators in the wild, compiling 639 estimates across 38 species of fish. We found that piscine predators typically maintain the physiological capacity to feed at daily rates 2–3 times higher than what they experience on average. A numerical simulation of the trade-off between food-processing capacity and metabolic cost suggests that the observed level of physiological opportunism is profitable only if predator–prey encounters, and thus predator energy budgets, are far more variable in nature than currently assumed. Fishing down food web leaves fewer big fish, more small fish in past century: research © 2010 PhysOrg.com Citation: Predatory fish have large guts to help them through famine (2011, July 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-07-predatory-fish-large-guts-famine.html It has long been known that in captivity predatory fish can grow much larger than they do in the wild. Their stomachs are usually sac-shaped and capable of processing enormous quantities of food at a time, and in captivity it is easy to over-feed the fish. In the wild the fish must expend a great deal of energy in foraging, stalking, capturing and then digesting their prey.The unpredictable nature of predation has led some researchers to suggest they can store the energy they derive from gorging on food when it is available to enable them to survive periods when prey is not available, but until now little study had been done on the digestive capabilities of wild animals. This is the first comprehensive study of the digestive capabilities of wild predatory fish.In the new study, researchers Jonathan B. Armstrong and Daniel E. Schindler of the School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences at the University of Washington in Seattle analyzed some 639 recordings of 38 species of predatory fish and assessed the load capacity ratios for their digestive systems. The researchers found the digestive systems of the predatory fish were around two or three times larger than they need to be in average conditions. The large gut allows them to capitalize on “pulses of food abundance,” which requires a high digestive capacity, but maintaining that capacity is costly in energy terms when food is scarce and a large gut is not needed.Armstrong and Schindler developed numerical simulations of the trade-off that exists between having excess digestive capacity and the metabolic cost of the extra guts. The simulations suggest the trade-off benefits the fish only if they experience irregular periods of feast and famine, and that predator/prey encounters are less common than previously believed. The paper is published in the journal Nature.
(Phys.org)—One of the concerns with using nuclear energy is the management of the waste produced. Much of reactor waste can be recycled, however one byproduct, americium-241 is radioactive, and is responsible for a large proportion of the heat generated. It is difficult to separate from the recyclable waste. Molecular structure of p-tpy on the surface of an ITO particle with the protonation state depicted as expected in neutral pH. (Left) A simple molecular illustration. (Right) A density functional theory–optimized p-tpy structure with pyridine rings oriented to show the potential tridentate bonding motif, ideally placed on a surface. Credit: (c) 2015 Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.aac9217 Am(III), americium’s stable oxidation state in water and acidic solutions, is difficult to remove using a ligand complex because its coordination chemistry is very similar to the other actinides and lanthanides. While higher oxidation states would allow separation and removal using solvent extraction methods, oxidizing Am(III) requires prohibitively high potentials. Oxidation has been achieved previously by others using strong chemical oxidants, however, a useful electrochemical method to make high oxidation state americium for nuclear waste processing has eluded scientists for more than half a century.Christopher J. Dares, Alexander M. Lapides, Thomas J. Meyer from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Bruce J. Mincher from Idaho National Laboratory showed that by modifying a highly porous nanoparticle electrode with p-tpy, a ligand that is known to coordinate with Am(III), they are able to lower the oxidation potentials for Am(III) to Am(V) and Am(VI) in acidic solution and therefore separate americium from other nuclear waste products. When oxidized to Am(V) and Am(VI), americium forms the oxo complexes [AmO2]2+ and [AmO2]+. They are easier to remove from waste streams than Am(III), but to exploit them requires overcoming the high potential for oxidizing Am(III) to Am(IV) (more than 1 volt beyond the potential required to oxidize water to oxygen). Based on previous studies involving the surface modification of oxide electrodes, Dares, et al. investigated mesoporous oxide electrodes and the influence of ligand binding on the oxidation of metal ions in the external solution. Dares, et al. covered their tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) electrode surface with p-tpy, a known ligand for metal ion binding, and monitored Am(III) conversion to Am(V) and Am(VI) during electrolysis using spectroscopic measurements. They conducted their spectroscopic measurements every three minutes during the electrolysis of a 0.43 mM solution of 243Am(III) at 1.8 V (vs. SCE in 0.1 M nitric acid). They observed formation of the higher oxidation states of americium below the 2.6 V potential required to oxidize Am(III) to Am(IV), with evidence for the importance of an Am(III)-p-tpy complex on the surface in decreasing the thermodynamic barrier for oxidation of Am(III) to Am(IV) which triggers further oxidation to [AmO2]2+ and [AmO2]+. On a first run, half of the Am(III) had converted to Am(V), but no Am(VI) formed, likely due to a competing autoreduction reaction caused by the effects of the radioactive decay of the americium. After adjusting the concentration of Am(V), Dares et al. demonstrated that Am(VI) can be generated electrochemically at 1.8 V. The mechanism appears to involve surface binding of Am(III) and oxidation to Am(IV) followed by further oxidation to Am(V) and release as [AmO2]+. Radioactive decay of americium results in the release of high energy radiation which is absorbed by water in a process known as radiolysis. One of the products of water radiolysis is hydrogen peroxide and it reduces Am(VI) making it unstable. Dares, et al. conducted an electrolysis study in which they varied the applied potential to study the competitive effects of electrochemical oxidation, and radiolytically induced reduction in aqueous acidic solutions. This study shows that one possible route to removing americium-241 from nuclear waste is through electrochemical oxidation to higher-order oxidation states. While normally prohibitive because of the high potential required, by using a ligand-functionalized mesoporous electrode, the oxidation potential of Am(III) to Am(IV) is decreased, opening a route to [AmO2]2+ that will be much easier to separate from nuclear waste. New finding shows a research area to expand in EMSL Radiochemistry Annex © 2015 Phys.org Explore further More information: C. J. Dares et al. Electrochemical oxidation of 243Am(III) in nitric acid by a terpyridyl-derivatized electrode, Science (2015). DOI: 10.1126/science.aac9217ABSTRACTSelective oxidation of trivalent americium (Am) could facilitate its separation from lanthanides in nuclear waste streams. Here, we report the application of a high-surface-area, tin-doped indium oxide electrode surface-derivatized with a terpyridine ligand to the oxidation of Am(III) to Am(V) and Am(VI) in nitric acid. Potentials as low as 1.8 volts (V) versus the saturated calomel electrode were applied, 0.7 V lower than the 2.6 V potential for one-electron oxidation of Am(III) to Am(IV) in 1 molar acid. This simple electrochemical procedure provides a method to access the higher oxidation states of Am in noncomplexing media for the study of the associated coordination chemistry and, more important, for more efficient separation protocols. Journal information: Science Citation: Functionalized porous electrode used for radioactive waste product (2015, November 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-11-functionalized-porous-electrode-radioactive-product.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Discovered in 1752, Messier 83 (M83 for short) is a barred spiral galaxy located some 15.6 million light years away from the Earth. It is one of the closest and brightest barred spiral galaxies in the sky.M83 has a complex, multi-phase gaseous halo. The gas in such haloes is of special interest for astronomers as it is crucial to advancing knowledge about star formation. This is due to the fact that the gas necessary for continuous star formation most likely this comes from a reservoir of gas in haloes surrounding the galaxy.Warm ionized gas with temperatures around 1,000 K is called extra-planar diffuse ionized gas (or eDIG). It is known that eDIG has different properties when compared to gas in star-forming regions. Therefore, astronomers are still searching for more evidence of this ionized gas within galaxies, which could provide more details on star formation and galaxy evolution processes.Now, Boettcher’s team reports the discovery of eDIG in M83 and describes its kinematics. The detection was made using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), located in South Africa.”Using optical emission-line spectroscopy from the Robert Stobie Spectrograph on the Southern African Large Telescope, we performed the first detection and kinematic study of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas in the nearby, face-on disk galaxy M83,” the researchers wrote in a paper.The astronomers revealed that the eDIG in M83 was found thanks to its emission-line ratios, velocity dispersion, and rotational velocity lag with respect to the disk.According to the paper, the median, line-of-sight velocity dispersion observed in the diffuse gas is much higher than that observed in the Milky Way galaxy and nearby, edge-on disk galaxies. This shows that the velocity dispersions in these layers may be anisotropic.The team noted that the diffuse emission lags the disk emission in rotational velocity, which is qualitatively consistent with the multi-phase lagging halos observed in other galaxies. The study shows that the median velocity lag between the disk and the halo exceeds the rotational velocity lags observed in several nearby, edge-on disk galaxies.In concluding remarks, the authors suggest that if the velocity dispersion of eDIG in M83 indicates turbulent motions, there is sufficient thermal and turbulent support to produce an eDIG scale height of about 3,000 light years in dynamical equilibrium. Moreover, the researchers concluded that velocity dispersion of the eDIG layer is consistent with the sound speed in the hot phase, and rotational velocity lags are observed in both the cold and warm components.The team plans more studies regarding kinematics of extraplanar diffuse ionized gas in various galaxies. “In future work, we will construct a sample of both face-on and edge-on galaxies, develop a picture of the three-dimensional kinematics of eDIG layers, and contextualize this picture in the multi-phase environment of the disk-halo interface,” the paper reads. More information: arxiv.org/pdf/1707.08126.pdf Hubble view of barred spiral galaxy Messier 83. Image credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA). Credit: William Blair, Johns Hopkins University © 2017 Phys.org A research group led by Erin Boettcher of the University of Wisconsin-Madison has detected and characterized an extraplanar diffuse ionized gas in the nearby galaxy Messier 83. The study, published July 25 on arXiv.org, provides important insights into kinematics of the diffuse gas in this galaxy. Explore further Astronomers uncover properties of a molecular outflow feature in a nearby starburst galaxy This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Extraplanar diffuse ionized gas detected in a nearby galaxy (2017, July 31) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-07-extraplanar-diffuse-ionized-gas-nearby.html
Journal information: Applied Physics Letters Citation: Light-erasable memory promising for system-on-panel displays (2017, December 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-12-light-erasable-memory-system-on-panel.html More information: Long-Fei He et al. “Light-erasable embedded charge-trapping memory based on MoS2 for system-on-panel applications.” Applied Physics Letters. DOI: 10.1063/1.5000552 The researchers, Long-Fei He et al., at Fudan University and the Institute of Microelectronics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, have published a paper on the new memory in a recent issue of Applied Physics Letters.As most existing memory technologies are too bulky to be integrated onto a display panel, researchers have been investigating entirely new designs and materials to fabricate ultrathin memory devices that still exhibit good performance. In the new study, the researchers used an atomically thin semiconductor—the two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide MoS2—whose conductivity can be finely tuned to allow it to form the basis of a memory with a high on/off current ratio.In tests, the researchers also demonstrated that the memory has a fast operation speed, a large memory window, and excellent retention: even under high temperatures of 85 °C (185 °F), the researchers estimate that after 10 years the memory would maintain 60% of its original memory window, which is still large enough for practical applications.Since previous research has demonstrated that MoS2 is photoresponsive, meaning some of its properties can be controlled with light, the scientists here investigated what happens to the overall memory device when illuminated by light. They observed that, when light is illuminated on a programmed memory device, the memory is completely erased. However, a voltage must be used to write to the memory, and a voltage can still be used instead of light to erase the memory.The researchers expect that, in the future, the new memory design may play an important role in system-on-panel applications, which they plan to investigate further.”In general, system-on-panel (SOP) describes a new display technology in which both active and passive components are integrated in one panel package, typically on the same glass substrate (sometimes system-on-panel is also named system-on-glass),” coauthor Hao Zhu at Fudan University told Phys.org. “This is different from traditional display technologies such as cathode ray tube (CRT) displays. One major characteristic of SOP is the application of thin-film technology, such as low-temperature poly-silicon (LTPS) thin-film transistor (TFT) arrays on the glass substrate. However, silicon-based thin-film transistors are being replaced by TFTs with new materials with improved properties. The indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) or zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin film mentioned in our paper is also a good example.”Currently, we are working on the large-scale integration of such light-erasable 2-D memory devices using programmable light pulses with controllable wavelength and pulse duration,” he said. “We are using new material synthesis methods such as atomic layer deposition to grow large-area MoS2 and other 2-D ultra-thin films for circuit-level applications.” © 2017 Phys.org Researchers have designed a memory device based on atomically thin semiconductors and demonstrated that, in addition to exhibiting a good performance in general, the memory can also be fully erased with light, without any electrical assistance. The new memory has potential applications for system-on-panel technology, in which all of the components of an electronic device are integrated onto a display panel, resulting in ultrathin devices for automobiles, cell phones, and other applications. Highly flexible organic flash memory for foldable and disposable electronics Explore further AFM image of the light-erasable memory device. Credit: He et al. ©2017 American Institute of Physics This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Single-nanoparticle logic computation on LNTs. (A) Schematics of the LNT platform. Two types of DNA-modified nanoparticles, immobile receptor (R) and mobile floater (F), are tethered to an SLB and monitored by DFM. (B) R–F pairs as nanoparticle Boolean logic gates. Each logic gate takes DNA as inputs and yields either an assembly or a disassembly between the two particles as an output. Bidirectional arrows denote R–F interactions. Surface DNA ligands are not depicted. (C) Single-nanoparticle YES gates. Functional domains are represented by color and subscripted numbers with arrowheads indicating their 3′ ends. Asterisks denote complementarity. Glowing circles behind R–F dimers illustrate plasmonic coupling. (D) Image analysis. A single-particle tracking algorithm first identifies receptor signals from a raw image sequence. Afterward, the detected signals are sampled and used to generate a new dark-field movie that visualizes only receptor signals. (E) Kinetics analysis. Receptor-only snapshots (top) and a kinetics plot (bottom) of the Assembly YES gate are provided for each input condition. A kinetics plot is obtained by cumulatively counting the number of state-switching receptors over time. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau2124 The receptor-only visualization of a dark-field movie. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau2124. Scientists can expand on the demonstrated scope of lipid bilayer-based nanoparticle computation to advance the existing molecular computing technologies to operate nanoparticle circuits. They can also integrate lipid bilayers with DNA nanostructures to open the development of new molecular circuits by expanding on dynamic inter-origami interactions for more complex and practical molecular computations. Current limits of the experimental setup prevent the construction of arbitrarily large circuits. These can be overcome to generate broader design space for circuit buildup with new modes of communication, dynamic reconfiguration and DNA walkers. Seo et al. envision that the molecular computing network can be analogously built in a similar approach to silicon-based computers that have improved through the years. The scientists can advance the experimental setup by increasing the nanoparticle density, to increase the computing capacity and expand parallelism, so that each nanoparticle may independently perform its own computation. For practical applications, the lipid nanotablet will play a pivotal role in building dynamic, autonomous nanosystems in molecular diagnostics and smart sensors; to sense multiple stimuli and trigger the appropriate response. If such nanocircuits are introduced into living cell membranes, scientists can create novel bioengineered nano-bio interfaces as biologic-inorganic hybrid systems. The particles can also be used separately to study membrane-associated phenomena in living cells. In this way, by facilitating communication between nanosystems and cellular systems, the scientists will be able to activate new pathways to navigate complex and dynamic theranostic applications. © 2019 Science X Network Explore further On a lipid nanotablet in solution, Seo et al. established that a single nanoparticle logic gate senses molecules as inputs and triggered particle assembly or disassembly as an output. They demonstrated Boolean logic operations alongside fan-in/fan-out of logic gates and a combinational logic circuit as a multiplexer in the study. The scientists envision the novel approach would be able to modulate nanoparticle circuits on lipid bilayers to engineer new paradigms and gateways in molecular computing, nanoparticle circuits and system nanoscience, in the future.Matter can be merged with computation across many length scales, ranging from micro-sized droplets in microfluidic bubble logic and micro-particles to biomolecules and molecular machines. Implementing computation in nanoparticles remains unexplored, despite a wide range of applications that could benefit from the ability to algorithmically control the useful photonic, electrical, magnetic, catalytic and material properties of nanoparticles. These properties are currently inaccessible via molecular systems. Ideally, systems of nanoparticles equipped with computing capabilities can form nanoparticle circuits to autonomously perform complex tasks in response to external stimuli to combine the flow of matter and information at the nanoscale. An existing approach to use nanoparticles as substrates for computation is to functionalize the particles with stimuli-responsive ligands. A group of such modified nanoparticles will then perform elementary logic operations that respond to a variety of chemical and physical inputs. Scientists aim to use an individual nanoparticle as modular nano-parts and implement a desired computation in a plug-and-play manner. However, there are difficulties in wiring integrated multiple logic gates in the solution phase since it is challenging to control the diffusion of inputs, logic gates and output in 3D space. To solve this challenge, scientists were inspired by the cell membrane; a biological equivalent of a circuit board that can host a variety of receptor proteins as computational units. In nature, compartmentalized proteins interact with receptors as a network to conduct complex functions. The membranes can also allow parallel computing processes to occur and therefore materials scientists were inspired to rewire the biological phenomenon. To construct lipid nanotablets in the experimental setup, the scientists used three key components – small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs), glass flow chambers and DNA-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles. The DNA modified nanoparticles adhered to the lipid bilayer to form logic gates and circuits that processed molecular information. The scientists classified the functionalized nanoparticles into immobile receptors (reporters for computation) or mobile floaters (information carriers of computation). In this context, floaters were “wires” that carried information of upstream gates into downstream gates through robust lateral diffusion. They characterized the nanoparticles to validate their material properties prior to constructing the experimental circuits. Researchers use disordered matter for computation, evolving breakthrough nanoparticle Boolean logic network Seo et al. used dark field microscopy (DFM) imaging to measure the performance of the nanoparticle logic gates in response to molecular inputs in solution. When dark-field image sequences were obtained from the logic operations, the scientist processed and quantified them using a custom-built image analysis pipeline. Altogether, the scientists engineered nanoparticle Boolean logic gates and single-nanoparticle YES gates assembly and disassembly operations in real-time. Single-nanoparticle YES gates formed the simplest examples in the study. To detect the scattering signals of a nanoparticle logic gate, the scientists relied on plasmonic coupling between two core particles that composed the gate. To form the nanoparticles, Seo et al. synthesized gold nanorods with silver shells, gold nanospheres and silver nanospheres on gold seeds referred to as red, green and blue nanoparticles to exhibit red, green and blue scattering signals in the study. The scientists represented the behavior of logic-gated nanoparticles in a simple, nanoparticle reaction graph to show an assembly reaction from a floater to a receptor and a disassembly reaction, providing an intuitive view on each nanoparticle logic gate behavior. The scientists used a sufficiently high density of nanoparticles and incorporated single-particle tracking algorithms to profile the scattering signals and visualize the receptor signals alone in a dark background. To qualitatively understand the overall computing performance of a single nanoparticle logic gate, they used the “receptor-only” view. The results showed that the population of nanoparticle logic gates switched into the ON state in response to performing a YES logic operation. The scientists deduced that a population of nanoparticle logic gates produced high output counts only when the molecular input met TRUE conditions.To demonstrate two-input, single-nanoparticle logic gates, Seo et al. similarly developed: Assembly AND, Assembly OR, Disassembly AND, and Disassembly OR gates via “interface programming”. The scientists showed that the design principles for interface programming were straightforward and could be generalized among circuits. They expanded the interface programming to enable nanoparticle logic gates to process INHIBIT logic. The scientists then increased the complexity of reactions at the receptor-floater interface but noticed incomplete reactions or spurious interactions occuring in the system. Such anomalous interactions indicated that they could not rely on programming particle interfaces as before to construct complex circuits. Instead, they introduced a conceptually distinct approach termed nanoparticle “network programming” to allow two single-particle logic gates to be combined with AND or, OR logic. In the resulting network programming of wired nanoparticle logic gates, the scientists showed the strategy could be implemented to build complex multilayer cascades readily without extensive optimization. Seo et al. successfully implemented the nanoparticle multiplexer to show the ability to design and operate nanoparticle circuits on LNTs in a highly modular and controlled manner. Journal information: Nature Nanotechnology , Science Advances , Nature Chemistry Nanoparticles can be used as substrates for computation, with algorithmic and autonomous control of their unique properties. However, scalable architecture to form nanoparticle-based computing systems is lacking at present. In a recent study published in Science Advances, Jinyoung Seo and co-workers in the Department of Chemistry at Seoul National University in South Korea, reported on a nanoparticle platform built in with logic gates and circuits at the level of the single particle. They implemented the platform on a supporting lipid bilayer. Inspired by cellular membranes in biology that compartmentalize and control signaling networks, the scientists called the platform “lipid nanotablet” (LNT). To conduct nano-bio-computing, they used a lipid bilayer as a chemical circuit board and the nanoparticles as units of computation. More information: Jinyoung Seo et al. Nano-bio-computing lipid nanotablet, Science Advances (2019). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau2124 Maxim P. Nikitin et al. Biocomputing based on particle disassembly, Nature Nanotechnology (2014). DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.156 Mikhail Motornov et al. “Chemical Transformers” from Nanoparticle Ensembles Operated with Logic, Nano Letters (2008). DOI: 10.1021/nl802059m Katarzyna P. Adamala et al. Engineering genetic circuit interactions within and between synthetic minimal cells, Nature Chemistry (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2644 Time-lapse dark-field imaging of a nanoparticle Assembly YES gate. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau2124. Bioinspired by cellular membranes, in the present study, Seo et al. demonstrated a lipid bilayer-based nanoparticle computing platform. As a proof-of-principle, they used light-scattering plasmonic nanoparticles to build circuit components, DNA as surface ligands and molecular inputs alongside biotin-streptavidin interactions to tether the nanoparticles to the lipid bilayer. After fixing the nanoparticles to a supported lipid bilayer (SLB), they provided several key features in the experiments; They compartmentalized the nanoparticles from a solution containing molecular inputs.Particle-to-particle interactions were confined so they would occur only through lateral diffusion at the fluidic 2D reaction space,They tracked the laterally confined nanoparticles and analyzed them in situ with single-particle resolution since a large number of light-scattering nanoparticles were shown to be confined in the focal plane using dark-field microscopy (DFM).The scientists implemented nano-bio computation at the interface of nanostructures and biomolecules, where the molecular information in solution (input) was translated into a dynamic assembly/disassembly of nanoparticles on a lipid bilayer (output). As a key component of an LNT, Seo et al. engineered a flow chamber with a lipid bilayer coated at the bottom of the substrate. Design principles for nanoparticle logic gates. (A) Graphical summary of the generalizable concept. Illustration of effector-mediated nanoparticle Assembly/Disassembly YES gates (left) and truth table for the concept (right) are provided. Selective effector-ligand pair and effector-chelator pair are required for construction of Assembly/Disassembly logic gates. To build a logic gate using two nanoparticles, “bonding” interactions in the receptor–floater interface need to be programmed in such a way that the bonds are formed (via assembly) or cleaved (via disassembly) only if two molecular inputs satisfy AND or OR logic. (B) Two-input Assembly AND gate. (C) Two-input Assembly OR gate. Assembly reactions are controlled by AND logic when the bond-forming interaction require the serial activation by the two inputs and by OR logic when the bond-forming interaction is controlled in parallel. (D) Two-input Disassembly AND gate. (E) Two-input Disassembly OR gate. Similarly, Disassembly reactions are modulated by AND logic via parallel disconnection and by OR logic via serial disconnection. (F) Table summary. These illustrations describe the generalized concept of the interface programming. In this study, we used sequence recognition and strand displacement of DNA as the mechanisms to implement the logic. Specifically, we used single-stranded DNA molecules as effectors, thiolated oligonucleotides as ligands, and a strand displacement as chelation mechanism. We foresee that this design rules can be potentially applied to other ligand systems and core nanostructures. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau2124. , Nano Letters Citation: Nano-bio-computing lipid nanotablet (2019, March 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-03-nano-bio-computing-lipid-nanotablet.html Wiring of nanoparticle logic gates via network programming. (A) Wiring with AND logic. Two logic gates (Disassembly AND gate and Assembly YES gate) are designed to operate in series for AND wiring. The floater F1, which is bound to the first receptor R1 in its initial state, acts as a Disassembly AND logic gate and subsequently as an Assembly YES gate with the second receptor R2. The generation of R2–F1 dimers is an output of the (X1 AND X2) AND X3 circuit. (B) Wiring with OR logic. Two logic gates (Disassembly AND gate and Disassembly YES gate) are designed to operate in parallel for OR wiring. The two gates both release G-NFs as outputs. The generation of the G-NFs is an output of the (X3 AND X4) OR X5 circuit. Circuit diagrams (top), single-particle dark-field analysis (middle), and kinetics analysis of circuits (lower left) and intermediate reactions (lower right). Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau2124 This document is subject to copyright. 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Darjeeling: In a major setback for the BJP, the Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (GJM) on Thursday announced its decision to forge an alliance with the Trinamool Congress in the forthcoming Panchayat elections, in Jalpaiguri and Alipurduar districts. This comes on the heels of Kamtapur Progressive Party (KPP) also throwing its weight behind the TMC in Dooars for the rural polls.The day saw a core committee and working committee meeting of GJM at Bagrakote in Jalpaiguri, from where this new political equation has emerged. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flights”We have decided to forge an alliance with the TMC in the two districts of Dooars for the rural polls. We will support TMC candidates in some Panchayats and in our strongholds, we will field independent candidates. A four-member GJM team will be visiting Dooars soon, to negotiate with TMC on seat sharing,” stated Suraj Sharma, GJM Spokesperson.GJM top brass, including president Binay Tamang, was present in the meeting. When questioned on why the GJM decided to leave the BJP fold, Sharma stated: “BJP has let down the Gorkhas. There are numerous instances of this. They have never been serious about the Gorkhas and have just used us for securing seats during elections.”He further stated that while the BJP-led Union government had called for a report within 3 hours of the recent Ranigunj strife, it remained a mere spectator during the 2017 unrest in Darjeeling and the 104-day-long bandh.”Whereas Mamata Banerjee has helped restore peace and normalcy in the Hills. We want Dooars to benefit also,” added Sharma.The GJM has strongholds in several areas of Dooars.
Kolkata: The state government has started distributing bicycles under Sabuj Sathi project among the students of class IX of state-run, sponsored and aided schools.Around 12.38 cycles will be distributed and the deadline for clearing the stock is September.Sabuj Sathi, an initiative taken by Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee is a major success and has reduced the number of drop outs from schools.In his budget speech, state Finance minister Amit Mitra had announced the scheme in 2015. The first batch of cycles were distributed by Mamata Banerjee at Gopiballavpur Block I on September 29, 2015. Tender was floated and cycles were procured from three well known manufacturers in the country. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe project was severely criticised by the opposition alleging that poor quality cycles had been distributed. But their allegations were later proved wrong. The cycles have been distributed by the Backward Classes Welfare (BCW) department. Around 70 lakh cycles have been distributed. It was decided that the cycles will be distributed among the students of classes IX to XII.The manufacturers had sent the cycle spares in 4,500 trucks, which were then distributed in the districts. The fitters came from different parts of the country to assemble the cycles. The cycles are given one year guarantee and are fitted Also Read – Naihati: 10 councillors return to TMC from BJPwith reflectors.The BCW has given training to unemployed youth to assemble and maintain the cycles with a view of making them self-reliant.The youth have also been given kits free of cost.The Sabuj sathi project has reduced the number of drop outs in schools. Also, it has reduced the number of early marriages of girls.Earlier, because of lack of communication, the girls took half an hour to one hour to reach homes from school.As they grow old, the parents felt insecure and arranged their marriage. But now as they have cycles, they can reach home on time. Also, it has helped the students to build confidence.
Many old timers today recall fond memories of being drawn to the streets by snake charmers and madaaris (conjurers) and being told stories, what is now a lost practice. But for renowned theatre artist Kamal Pruthi, “a storytelling movement (of the kind he has started) was necessary to fight the advent of technology, which has been dumbing the children down.”Clad in a green kurta-pajama with a pagdi (turban), this 33-year old ‘Kabuliwala’ is a favourite with children across the country every time they see him with his vibrant jhola (cloth bag), which they know is full of stories. Previously an IT professional, Pruthi is also arguably one of the few storytellers who perform in German, Hindi and Urdu and has been bringing back the culture of storytelling in many households and schools across the country. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“With mobile phones and other devices taking over, dadajis and nanajis (grandparents) don’t get to tell stories to their grandchildren any more. A family getting together over stories seems like in a long-gone era,” Pruthi told a media person.The monkey shows and the acrobats, who performed while telling their tales were experiential mediums which are now banned, he said, adding that children of the 21st century generation have not heard as many stories as their parents would have. The hunger for knowledge can only be satiated through stories, he maintained. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix“I’m a modern day madaari (conjurer). My job is to intellectually entertain the humble souls of kids — many of whom have never heard stories before,” Pruthi said.“Kids of this generation are energetic and need something to keep them engaged. The 90-year-old Santa Claus who entertains them comes only once a year, but kids know Kabuliwala is always there,” he added.Being a professional theatre artist for over a decade now, he believes the medium is not experiential enough for the audience, and thus he had to take a step ahead through his storytelling. There have been some challenges, though. Retelling the story of Sadat Hasan Manto’s Toba Tek Singh, in which after partition in 1947, a man has to decide whether India or Pakistan is his home, Pruthi recalled the challenge he had faced while representing 18 characters in the story.“The real challenge is when a storyteller has to perform so many characters and tell their stories,” he said.“A story can be called a strong one only when it can travel,” Pruthi explained, adding—“Not all actors can be storytellers, and also not all storytellers can be good actors. Unlike a theatre show which requires investment, storytelling can be quite economical and can be done on a terrace, a garden, or even below the staircase.”
Kolkata: Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee is scheduled to attend the 64th Convocation of IIT Kharagpur on Friday. The Chief Guest on the occasion will be Ram Nath Kovind, the President of India.IIT Kharagpur had extended invitation to Banerjee for attending the event and Nabanna sources said that she had accepted the invitation. It is for the first time that Banerjee is going to attend any programme at the premier institution.Security in the campus has been beefed up, with the President and the Chief Minister attending the event. Governor Keshari Nath Tripathi is also scheduled to be present. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeAccording to IIT sources, the event is scheduled to be held at the Tagore Open Air Theatre of the Institute, where close to 2,400 students will receive degrees from the Director of the Institute Prof. Partha Pratim Chakrabarti.Students will receive degrees in BTech, BArch, Dual BTech and MTech, MTech for 2 years and 3 years, MSc for 5 years and 3 years, Masters in Medical Science and Technology, Masters in Human Resource Management, MBA and Executive MBA, Postgraduate Diploma in Business Analytics, Bachelors and Masters in Law, MS Research and PhD. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe Institute will also award Distinguished Alumnus Award to selected alumni on the basis of their exemplary contributions to the domains of science and technology, industry, academia and society.The institute is coming up with the first super-speciality hospital in the IIT system, with the aim to transform it to a medical school with a focus on high-end medical research and medical outreach programmes.It is also coming up with a Research Park in Kolkata, to promote entrepreneurship and industrial research in Eastern India.